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Alexander Dugin: The Eurasian Occultist

“To be human is to be dangerous” – Alexander Dugin

There are many misconceptions about the Russian philosopher Alexander Dugin and his Eurasianism that resembles pagan gnostic occultism more so than Classical Eurasianism. Clarification between Russian Eurasianism and Alexander Dugin’s advocacy needs to be further distinguished to avoid deceitful manipulation.

The terrorism committed by the Christchurch shooter Brenton Tarrant formulated his ideology on the work of Generation Identity and the New Right. Generation Identity is an Alt-Right Pan-European pagan patriotic movement with political goals of Stop the Islamization of Europe, Oppose Globalization and Stop and Reverse the Great Replacement. Their activism involves remigration where migrants should be forced to return back to their countries of origin. Their Ideology is a combination of anti-liberal philosophers including Alain de Benoist, Friedrich Nietzsche, Carl Schmitt, Julius Evola, Guillaume Faye, Oswald Spengler, Martin Heidegger and Alexander Dugin. Generation Identity utilises social media, banners, posters and merchandise to promote their narratives to recruit and engage with the public. Their ideology is messaged and marketed as an alternative to mainstream politics amongst the decay and crisis of European society, culture and national identity (Richards 2019). Only a complete Pan-European national cultural revival can save European civilisation from immigration, globalisation and liberalism. Historical revisionism and conspiracy are used to reinforce their ideological narratives to mobilise followers to engage in activism and political violence. The community is mostly in Europe with only a few followers online and even fewer members in official chapters in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Italy, UK, US and Ireland. However, given their rise to prominence within Europe, affiliations with other radical groups and the connection to the Christchurch terrorist attack. It has highlighted some obvious problems with the strategies of counter terrorism and the establishment of the European Union.

Generation Identity emerged in 2012 in France and went on to form different chapters across Europe. Its French New Right origins date back to 2002 advocating the rights for European ethnocultural groups. The movement is a manifestation of the metapolitical struggle and culture war of the continuation of the French New Right Nouvelle Droite that emerged in 1968 (Richards 2019; Bar-On 2001; 2008). Generation Identity’s activism has involved protests, marches, posters, banners and targeting refugees promoting tougher immigration laws and ethnopluralism (Nissen 2020). The alt-right group is one of the most recent incarnations of the radical right’s long-standing project against liberalism, multiculturalism and immigration. Its right wing Gramscianism of a Pan-European ethnic cultural hegemony is to replace the liberal EU establishment. The movement is the rebranding of radical ethnic nationalists into a more revolutionary transnational internationalists representing a collectivist homogenesis historical culture. It’s to move the radical right traditionally away from certain strands of Nazism and nationalism into a renewed universal ethnic cultural identity and ideology. Identity and ideology play an important role within the movement to mobilise political activism against the liberal democratic establishment (liberal elites) and the left-wing conspiracy against their European white ethnic demographic (European white genocide, great replacement, etc.) Nouvelle Droite paved the way for Generation Identity’s ideology where Alain de Benoist’s ideology got rid of two dogmas of fascism which are racism and rejection of democracy. Benoist replaced racism with ethnopluralism and promoted organic democracy (direct democracy) based on ethnic homogeneity and the Athenian polis model (Schelkshorn 2018). The objectives are to wage a cultural war by civil society against the media and the liberal left by supporting worldwide ethnopluralism against homogenization by the state, capitalism, EU, international organisations and liberal multiculturalism. Limit if not stop immigration entirely within the context of non-racist even anti-racist on the bases of belonging to different cultures (Bar-On 2021). Generation Identity has adopted most of Guillaume Faye’s work to construct their ideology with his political vision of biologistic instead of Benoist’s anti-immigration ethnocultural biopolitics. In Generation identity: A Declaration of War Against the 68ers Markus Willinger cites Faye saying “A people’s identity is what makes it incomparable and irreplaceable” also “identity’s basis is biological without it the realms of culture and civilization are unsustainable”. He has also summarised Faye’s main arguments stating “The agents of the system for killing peoples … would like to break the chain of our heritage: we’re here to fix its links” (Bar-On 2021). Willinger’s other book A Europe of Nations and Michael Levin’s Why Race Matters have provided a critical perspective on religion, politics, economics, ecology, globalization, liberalism and immigration. All of which has contributed to the ideological and political characteristics and behaviour of Generation Identity and its members.

Alexander Dugin has contributed significantly towards the New Right with a very pro-fascist pro-imperialist radical extremist transnational ultrarational pagan philosophical framework. Dugin has blended different disciplines, theoretical concepts, spiritualities, philosophies and metaphysics together which are incompatible with each other to develop a nuance political philosophy called the Fourth Political Theory (Upton 2018). Dugin takes this even further placing this philosophical ideology into the geopolitical school of thought from Karl Haushofer, Halford Mackinder and Nicholas Spykman with mysticism, Aryanism, conspirology, fascism and Russian Eurasianism (Kipp 2002; Backman 2020; Tydlitatova; Sedgwick 2012). Dugin is no stranger to radical extremism, controversy and nefarious intensions given his history with Pamyat, Eduard Limonov’s National Bolsheviks and his own International Eurasianist Movement. Dugin called for Russians to retaliate against Ukrainians during the 2014 Ukraine crisis (Tolstoy & McCaffray 2015). Dugin supported Russian troops intervention into the armed conflict between Georgia and the separatist forces of South Ossetia. He widely publicised throughout the Russian media ‘Those, who do not second the “Tanks to Tbilisi!”, are not Russians. “Tanks to Tbilisi” that’s what should be written on every Russian’s forehead.’ (Shekhovtsov 2009). Dugin has praised the Soviet-era KGB for preparing his Eurasianist project by investigating the people of Eurasia. To create an Asiatic strategic bloc under Moscow’s control. Dugin has suggested that Russia needs a (oprichnina) new secret police of Ivan the Terrible and that terrorizing people is actually beneficial for them (Clowes 2011). Dugin has also utilised occultism particularly from Arturo Reghini (Dugin 1995) (Julius Evola & Arturo Reghini had a falling out over the plagiarism of the publication Pagan Imperialism (Drake 1988)), Aleister Crowley and his time with Soviet underground Iuzhinskii Circle to morph this with religious messianic eschatology which he also puts into a geopolitical concept for a Eurasian spiritual civilisation (Laruelle 2015; Upton 2018; Noordenbos 2011; 2016; Hakl 2012). Dugin views conspiracy as a fun post-modern science where it is a continuation of medieval myths of dark forces and devil’s intrigues that are used outside the religious context. Dugin explains conspiracy as an admirable chaos and fascinating delirium to analyse conspiracy as a sociological and cultural phenomenon of post-modernity. In Dugin’s book Conspirology he outlines an eschatological occult metaphysical war including a mason plot, Jewish plot, bankers plot, Bolshevik plot, mundialisation plot and secularization plot. Dugin’s method is based on inverted distorted metaphysical dogmas and inborn psycho-mental directions of psycho-genetic factors between different races and cultures. Different races and cultures represent different transcendent principles and ideologies. However, Dugin doesn’t really explain how does this in its particular context is significant and substantial towards history, culture and politics (Shnirelman 2019). The New Right’s mission is to make the Old Right the New Revolutionary Left utilising the thinkers of the German Conservative Revolution and pan-cultural nationalism (Luks 2009; Bar-On 2009). The viability of the New Right is to form nuance alliances and networks with as many different political, cultural, religious and ethnic demographics against the liberal hegemonic order (Dugin 2014). Beniost and Dugin meet in 1990 and have been collaborating many times since then. Dugin and Alexander Prokhanov were fascinated by Benoist and Nouvelle Droite whom they regarded as the Western equivalent to the Russian pochvenniki (Russian New Right). Dugin, Beniost and Prokhanov were instrumental in forming the Red-Brown alliance in Russia between communists and nationalists in 1990s (Bar-On 2013; Laqueur 1993; Versluis 2014; Piveronus Jr. 2009). Both Peunova (2008) and Sokolov (2009) have distinguished that Alexander Panarin and Alexander Dugin’s new Eurasianism (Neo-Eurasianism) is a variant and continuation of the European New Right. A manifestation of the intellectual transnational nature of the extreme radical right and a form of Europeanization of Russian ultra-nationalism. As Dugin put it in an interview:

“If the European New Right chooses us (Russians), that means it chooses the barbarian element, and therefore it must choose our methods of action,” (Dugin) says. He notes that the New World Order will not come about by means of “aging gentlemen meeting in seminars.” He advises the following: “You must take a knife, put on a mask, go out of the house in the evening and kill at least one Yank.” He adds, “I do not know whether any of the New Right activists have ever been under artillery siege, but our people do not only go to meetings or fight at the barricades, they also go to real wars, for instance to the Dniestr district (Moldova), or to Yugoslavia…. The New Right is only a project, and we are its architects. The future is truly ours.” Interview with Dugin 1998 (Clowes 2011)

Dugin views the ideology of fascism as a revolutionary process as he outlined:

Fascism this is nationalism yet not any nationalism, but revolutionary, rebellious, romantic, idealistic (form of nationalism) appealing to a great myth and transcendental idea, trying to put into practice the impossible dream, to give birth to a society of the hero and superhuman, to change and transform the world. (Shekhovtsov 2008)

Dugin has advised his Eurasian followers to participate in the local intifada (The Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation) as he said:

“The conflict in Israel is incredibly beneficial to us. And the great powers are in no hurry. It’s been a long time since we saw Hezbollah, so we went. And you shouldn’t just hurt the Arabs. The contradiction between the United States and Israel that has emerged is a gift of fate. Now only more blood. And everyone should participate in everything. Even in Voronezh or Tambov, you should take part each in its own way in the local intifada, intifada everywhere. Zionist jihad. The children are sleeping.” (Dugin 2000; Arctogea)

Dugin has expressed that Anders Behring Breivik’s terrorist attack in Norway was just a symptom of European decay and welcomes more Breiviks. As he said:

“The end is coming to Europe…. Let there be multiculturalism, Freemasonry, gay pride and Breiviks. Let all this European filth destroy itself…. The more Breiviks… the better.” (Enstad 2017)

In Brenton Tarrant’s manifesto The Great Replacement: Towards a New Society, We March Ever Forwards he credits Anders Breivik as a source of inspiration and insight on white genocide. White genocide is the result of declining European fertility (declining birth rates) and mass immigration of non-Europeans replacing Europeans. The ethnic and cultural replacement of the European people is white genocide where revolutionary action is necessary to stop the extinction of Europeans and European civilisation. Tarrant reminisces that his extremist realisation occurred in France researching the First World War battlefields where Europeans were fighting against the non-European invaders. After witnessing the French presidential election between Marine Le Pen and Emmanuel Macron he became convinced that there was no political solution. Only a violent racial revolution will make whites aware of the historical development of their own white genocide. Violent action and revenge must be taken against Muslims (Islamic invaders) for invading Europe and enslaving and killing Europeans throughout history (Moses 2019). Before the massacre of fifty-one people in Christchurch, New Zealand Tarrant donated money to Generation Identity. Martin Sellner leader of the Austrian chapter and co-founder of Generation Identity had a lengthy email exchange with Tarrant and invited Tarrant to meet him. After Tarrant’s terrorist attack police raids were conducted on Sellner and Generation Identity on the suspicion that Sellner was forming a terrorist organisation with Tarrant. Political steps were made to ban Generation Identity in Austria, France, UK and Germany. But there are still Generation Identity chapters and groups within Europe (Richards 2019). Sellner has moved away from Pan-Europeanism somewhat towards a strategy for European secessionism (Sellner 2021). Tarrant’s terrorist attack has gone on to inspire Patrick Crusius (El Paso Shooter) and Philip Manshaus (Baerum mosque shooter). Tarrant’s attack has had an overall influential impact on the far-right community online coined the ‘Tarrant effect’ (Baele, Brace & Coan 2020). Olavo de Carvalho a controversial Brazilian philosopher has accused Dugin of being an ostensible preacher of war and genocide. As well as performing magic tricks to make conspiracy theories look like respectable historical hypothesises. After Tarrant’s terrorist attack Carvalho made the observation that Tarrant wasn’t a far-right extremist but an Eurasianist given Eurasianism revolutionary left-wing characteristics. Carvalho is accurate in a certain context given the history of left-wing Eurasianism and its revolutionary decolonisation (Shlapentokh 1997; Smirnov 2019; Smirnov 2020). Tarrant in his manifesto refers to Donald Trump as a symbol of renewed white identity and common purpose. Dugin has even said this in his own way during a Chinese interview with (China Global Television Network) CGTN describing that Trump in a way is Eurasianist. Of course, this is referring to that a certain identity represents the collective of a heritage and image of a particular race, cultural, civilisation and ideology. Dugin is an advocate of the doctrine Katechon where a people, nation and civilisation is not sovereign without their own unique authentic ideology (Logos) and values (Engstrom 2014; Kushnir 2019; Prozorov 2012; Bell & du Plessis 2020; Hell 2009). Dugin is also an advocate of Lev Gumilyov’s ethnogenesis (passionary) the science of ethnic cultural cyclical revival and decline with his own ethnosociology (Dugin 1997; 2018; 2019; Panarin & Shnirelman 2001; Bassin & Suny 2016; Shlapentokh 2007). Granted that Carvalho’s comment was a personal jab against Dugin his observation has provided an opportunity for further research on this subject matter. Given the resemblance of the New Right’s literature with that of radical extremist ideology.

The New Right’s survival is only possible with nuance alliances, contacts and networks to rebrand themselves under different projects, initiatives, campaigns and movements. To cope and adjust to the changing political economic landscape of international relations, the international community and the liberal world order. The strategic initiative of the hard-line Russian Eurasianists (Alexander Dugin, Gennady Zyuganov, Yevgeny Primakov, Alexander Prokhanov & Alexander Panarin) has been to create a United States of Eurasia. With forging the Moscow-Berlin-Paris axis and merging the Russian World (Eurasian Orthodox Christianity) with the Islamic World to banish American influence from Eurasia (Piveronus Jr. 2009; Tsygankov 2003; Shlapentokh 2017; Sharpe 2020; Ingram 2001; Curanovic 2010). Dugin has elaborated on many strategic initiatives including the three axis Eurasianist strategy incorporating Moscow-Berlin axis, Moscow-Tokyo axis and Moscow-Tehran axis (Heiser 2014). Dugin was invited by Iranian Foreign Ministry and the Tehran Institute for Strategic Research in 2005 to work towards an alliance between Iran and Russia (Hollwerth, Umland & Uffelmann (2007(2012)); Dreher 2020; Merati 2017; Shlapentokh 2008). Dugin has continuously developed many contacts with many different figures including many from different political, religious, media and academic circles both from the West & East (Michael 2018; Laruelle 2020; Hell & Steinmetz 2017; Teitelbaum 2020). Nouvelle Droite ideologues joined the French Front National in the 1980s to consulate a dynamic political party. Where the New Right’s philosophy and ideology was instrumental in developing the Front National’s ideology and policy (McCulloch 2006; Eltchaninoff 2017). Dugin is working towards merging the Russian World with the Islamic World to find cooperative synchrony between the Eurasian powers and civilisations. If a greater geopolitical counter hegemonic Eurasia and civilisation can’t be realised and achieved then preferably Russia Eurasia should exploit the geopolitical advantageous position it has within Eurasia. Dugin continues to work towards merging political extremism with religious radical fundamentalism particularly morphing radical Eurasian Orthodox Christianity with radical political Islam (Jihadism) to form greater Russian Eurasia (Moscow as the Third Rome). Dugin is perpetuating all radical political and religious extremism with his international Eurasianist movement for a crusade revolutionary suicide against the postmodern world (Shlapentokh 2008; Upton 2018; Garaev 2017; 2021; Arnold 2019; Dugin 1997; 2009; Oskanian 2021). In Dugin’s book Pop-Culture and the Sign of the Times he proclaims Internet Eurasia where Eurasia is not just a political economic geographical concept but also a virtual internet geography. The internet is the weapon for revolutionaries against the hegemonic postmodern liberal world order and its supporters (Clowes 2011). Generation Identity, alt-right, far-right and jihads have utilised the internet to spread their message, engage with the public and their targets and to forged new networks and contacts. Technology such as cryptography, encryption and cryptocurrencies can be utilised to further finance their political violence and terrorism (Ahmed & Pisoiu 2019; Maly 2019; Rauchfleish & Kaiser 2020; Valencia-Garcia 2020; Pokalova 2019; Rudner 2017; Pantucci & Ong 2021; Salami 2018; Warreth 2019; Kfir 2020). Geydar Dzhemal who was a brief friend of Dugin’s who was a part of Pamyat and the Iuzhinskii circle (Black Order of the SS) (Laruelle 2015; Umland 2016; Sibgatullina & Kemper 2017; Arnold 2018) elaborated in an interview on the significance of this alignment:

“For all forces included in this wing, anti-Americanism is a common assembly point. It is these forces that are the rising political stars of the electorate, collecting both “right” and “left” up to a third of the votes in certain regions of Europe. It is these forces, focused on the revival of Europe as an independent traditional civilization, that should become a partner of both Russia and political Islam, at least within the time frame of the current generation”. (Dzhemal 2010 Kontrudar)

Granted there are similar parallels with the radical extremism with that of the far-right and jihadism (ISIS & Al-Qaeda):

Example 1.

Tarrant (invaders)
To take revenge on the invaders for the hundreds of thousands of deaths caused by foreign invaders in European lands throughout history.

Thus, before we deal with the fertility rates, we must deal with both the invaders within our lands and the invaders that seek to enter our lands.

Breivik (resistance)

Efforts to consolidate and recruit patriotic resistance fighters in Western European prisons must be a prioritized task the coming decades.

A very important aspect of this non-military effort will involve indirect recruitment work for the armed European resistance movement.

Rumiyah (war)
As the soldiers of the Khilafah continue waging war on the forces of kufr, …

it is a must on every muwahhid to expand the scope of his jihad to include waging war on the kuffars wealth

(Buckingham & Alali 2020; Bar-On 2018)

The notion that far-right extremists and jihads can find any common ground to achieve a mutually beneficial result together is absurd which both Faye and Dzhemal have demonstrated. Faye and Benoist had a falling out over political optics where Benoist criticized Faye for his extremism and Le Pen for his anti-immigrant scapegoating. Faye advocated that Israel could be Europe’s ally against political Islamism and that the main enemy of Europe was Islam more so than liberalism. In an interview Faye explained that:

“For it (Islam) is not simply a religion, but a political doctrine. And this doctrine is imperialist. Twice before in history it has sought to conquer Europe.” (Bar-On 2013)

Dzhemal rejected Dugin’s integration Eurasianist project for Russian Eurasia with absolute disgust expressing that these attempts are emulating the American establishment. Also continuing the imperialist tradition of Russia to commit brutality against Muslims and Islam (Shlapentokh 2008; 2010; 2011 Dzhemal 2006; 2008; 2015). Dzhemal has developed a very dynamic refined version of Jihadism (blending Marxism, Eschatology and Islamism together) advocating Muslims to ignite a global Jihad and Caliphate to dissolve nation-states and the international political economic system entirely (Shlapentokh 2008; Dzhemal 2012; 1997; 2013). Benoist in an interview expressed that Dugin has theorized many esoteric and mystical issues which he all found very foreign (Versluis 2014). Dugin has even expressed his frustration over religious communities, doctrines and tradition:

“Frankly, I hate traditionalists no matter whether they are of domestic or Western origin. They are rabble. Good people do real work or wage wars, even if they have little chance of success. All over the world.” (Shekhovtsov & Umland 2009)

The anarchist, journalist and activist Aleksey Tsvetkov was a member of the Eurasia movement for seven years. He was apart of the National Bolsheviks and wanted to be a part of Eurasianism until Dugin ask him to be involved within government structures. He left describing Eurasianism as a form of political mysticism following the Gnostic scheme of us against them. As he put it:

“This is Dugin’s favourite idea that a cosmic war is being fought. So, all these things fascism, communism, capitalism they are all very relative. Behind them stand some superhuman beings, who are not good or evil. This is a pagan system; it is not morally determined. These are just different forces … and if you find yourself under the influence of one of these forces, you become its soldier either a blind soldier, or a knowing soldier that is, belonging to the minority. This is the Gnostic division of people into those who have heard nothing, those who have heard something …’’ (Fenghi 2020)

Apart from the New Right leaders having clear philosophical ideological differences, both far-right and jihad zealot ideologues are completely incompatible with each other. Far-right extremism is racial national supremacy compared to that of takfiri jihadi universalism (Khalifah for all) (Abdulmajid 2021; Dzhemal 2005). Dzhemal has illustrated that Europe is a dying civilisation and back in 2013 he made the prediction that the EU will cease to exist in 10 years (2023) facing disintegration (Dzhemal 2013; 2016; 2009). There are forecasts that the Covid-19 recession in the global economy and within Western Europe that a renewed escalation of Islamist terrorism could occur in Western Europe around 2026-2027 (Tausch 2021). Plans can certainly be in the works for East Asia bringing radical Hindus, Sikhists, Buddhists, Confusions, Taoists and Shintoists towards political extremism. Also, to bring officials from political, military and security institutions into the international Eurasianist movement (Rangsimaporn 2009; Curanovic 2010). Znamenski’s (2011) book Red Shambhala: Magic, Prophecy and Geopolitics in the Heart of Asia historically shows how Soviet Communists sought geopolitical influence over Mongolia and Tibet by projecting world revolution by utilizing messianic prophecies among Asian tribes. Dugin wants religious cultural communities to embrace political radical extremism to get rid of nation-states and the international system. Replaced with regional civilisational transnationalism constructing a universal spiritual Eurasian civilisation incorporating the West & East the Global South & Global North as one. Simpler to that of Dzhemal’s Jihadism political Islam being the universal spiritual civilisation of the world. However, Dugin’s purpose goes even further than this since this undertaking would cause chaos and according to Dugin’s so-called logic and work globalised liberalisation has caused global chaos and destruction. Why does Dugin then emulate the very thing that he apparently hates? If the overall purpose is to cause chaos and destruction of nation-states and the international system (liberal world order) then by Dugin’s perceived logic he should be a liberal. The reason behind this is simply because Dugin’s sole purpose is to renew the world by destroying the world returning everything and everyone back to God to heaven and hell wherever we may end up. Dugin is an Occultist playing far-out games where no alliance or constructive strategy could ever be formed. The international Eurasianist movement and the New Right can be perceived as a messianic gnostic movement, pagan movement or a geopolitical tool of social engineering (Steinmetz, Knight & McCarthy 2021; Steinmetz 2021). A more accurate evaluation is that the manifestation of Generation Identity, the New Right and the Eurasianist movement is a post-nationalist transnational populist phenomenon (Azmanova & Dakwar 2019). Which is a symptom of the global political economic crisis among nation states and the international community. The crisis of global capitalism, globalisation and geopolitics has created fierce inequality and division that has resulted in nations and citizens consolidating their resources and efforts towards conflict and war (Paul 2020). Psychiatrist, Robert Simon in his book Bad Men Do What Good Men Dream explains that to believe that evil doesn’t exist in oneself is fictitious and is the main driver that enables prejudice and discrimination on a large scale resulting in terrorism, war and genocide (Paul 2021). No doubt that the contradictions and inconsistencies of the New Right has been its downfall. However, attempts can still be made by radical extremists to commit political violence and terrorism utilising the New Right’s literature and roadmap. Dugin’s manifestos Eurasian Mission: An Introduction to Neo-EurasianismArctogeaThe Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia & The Great Awakening vs the Great Reset. Along with the New Right’s manifestos including Benoist’s Manifesto for a European Renaissance, Faye’s Why We Fight: Manifesto of the European Resistance and Generation Identity A Declaration of War Against the ‘68ers. Are all war cries to mobilise radical extremists to commit political violence and terrorism against the liberal world order, postmodern world and whoever disagrees with them being designated as opposition. Nuance security and counter terrorism strategies and policies can be adopted to combat this unique radial extremism.

There is much that can be done to ensure solidarity, unity and security among communities combating radical extremism. Adopting a counter terrorism security strategy of a prevention-based model addressing the root causes of terrorism. An in-depth understanding of how threats develop further into violent attacks based on pre-attack behaviours. How has an individual become radicalised and what is the probability of them committing a terrorist attack? The community should be involved in this process and evaluation and not alienated (Gerspacher 2020; Battersby 2020). Also, anti-terrorism laws should be reformed to be more transparent, fair and equal for all demographics not alienating certain minorities (Dagistanli & Poynting 2017). The war criminals responsible for the devastation of Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya that has caused the refugee crisis and further radical extremism abroad should be held accountable (Paul 2021). Nations should cooperate together to combat extremism and terrorism instead of utilizing it as a geopolitical opportunity to serve their bureaucratic interests. Evgenii Lobachev a retired FSB (Russia’s Federal Security Service) General-Major believed ISIS was created by the US to destabilize the Arab world and nations that oppose the US (Shlapentokh 2019; Kelly 2020). Nations building trust and cooperating to diminish extremism and terrorism is in the interest of all nations that want security, stability and prosperity (Pradt 2020). The War on Terror policies need to be reformed to actually prevent terrorism not serve political ends (Bar-On & Goldstein 2005). A thorough evaluation of how Russian Eurasianism should be developed and utilised within international relations and security should be proposed (Lukin & Novikov 2021; Vinkovetsky 2000; Shnirelman 2001; Rangimaporn 2006). Community and cultural development should be a part of security policy to provide a sense of belonging for all demographics within society (Pereira 1997; Atran 2011). Charles Upton who is a staunch critic of Dugin has developed and promoted along with his friend Dr. John Andrew Morrow the Covenants Initiative. With this initiative Muslims and Christians will protect and defend each other in accordance with their religious teachings and principles against extremism (Morrow 2013). Citizens, governments and security agencies can revaluate the approaches of counter terrorism serving the public interest for security, stability and prosperity.

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Dugin Deconstructed 1: A Challenge to Alexander Dugin: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivFvhMPfVHw

Dugin Deconstructed 2: Inverted Metaphysics 5 Contradictions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoqQeqcIXAs

Dugin Deconstructed 3: Dugin against Islam: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-0zbCegJkI

Dugin Deconstructed 4: Soul of Dugin, Soul of Russia: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbEg-n48UDw

An Open Letter to Steve Bannon by an American Muslim and Follower of Rene Guenon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxDaoe5TOaE

Charles Upton: Fifteen questions for Aleksandr Dugin. https://charles-upton.com/2019/04/24/fifteen-questions-for-aleksandr-dugin/

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